Direct and indirect speech of English grammar

प्रत्यक्ष कथन को अप्रत्यक्ष कथन में बदलना

प्रकार

A. Assertive Sentences ( कथन वाचक वाक्य )

B. Interrogative Sentences ( प्रश्न वाचक वाक्य )

C. Imperative Sentences ( आज्ञा सूचक )

D. Exclamatory sentence ( विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य )

E. Optative Sentences ( इच्छासूचक वाक्य )

 

वाक्य संरचना

A.  Assertive Sentences (कथन वाचक वाक्य)

ऐसे वाक्य जिसमें क्रिया के सामान्य ढंग से होने का बोध होता है, Assertive Sentences कहलाता है.  इस प्रकार के वाक्यों को indirect में बदलने के लिए निम्न स्टेप्स को करते है

Steps

1)वाक्य के प्रकार को पहचाने

2)Reporting speech के tense को पहचाने

3)Reported speech  में परिवर्तन करना

a.Change in person (पुरुष)

b.Change in tense (काल)

c.Other changes (अन्य)

 

a – Change in person (पुरुष)

  • Reported speech के 1st person  का संबंध Reporting Speech के subject  के साथ होता है.
  • Second person  का संबंध object या कर्म से होता है.
  • Third person में कोई बदलाव नहीं होता है.

S  O   N  “ 1st- I/We, 2nd- You, 3rd- He/She/It ”

S = Subject
O = Object
N = No change

He said ” I am ready ”  =  He said that he was ready

( S  O   N  “ 1st- I/We, 2nd- You, 3rd- He/She/It  ” )

1st  person

He said ” I am ready ”  =  He said that he was ready

उपरोक्त वाक्य में I, 1st  person है और इसको He, Subject के अनुसार बदला गया है.

2nd person

She said to me “You do not love” = She told me that I did not love.

Munni said  “You marriage my sister”  =  Munni said that I marriage her sister.

उपरोक्त वाक्य में You, 2nd  person है और इसको Me, Object के अनुसार बदला गया है.

3rd person

You said “She wrote a love letter” = You said that She had written a love letter

उपरोक्त वाक्य में She, 3rd person है और इसमें कोई बदलाव नहीं किया गया है.

 

b – Change in tense (काल)

Reporting verb अगर Present या Future Tens में हो तो Reported Speech के Tense में कोई बदलाव नहीं करते है, जैसे-

  • She says, “  I am dancing  ”

She says that she is dancing

  • I shall say, “ She is an honest girl

I shall says that She is an honest girl

Reporting Speech यदि Past Tense  में हो तो सार्वभौमिक सत्य (Universal Truth ) को छोड़कर Reported speech के tense में इस तरह से परिवर्तन करेगे

Simple present                              Simple Past

Simple Past                                    Past Perfect

Present Continuous                      Past Continuous

Past Continuous                            Past Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous        Past P. Continuous

Past Perfect                                    Past Perfect

 

C – Other changes (अन्य)

Shall                    – Should

Will                      – Would

May                     –  Might

Can                      – Could

Now                     – Then

This/These         – That/Those

Come                   – Go

Here                    – There

Thus                    – So

Today                  – That day

Tonight               – That Night

Tomorrow          – Next Day

Next day             – The Following day

Yesterday           – Previous day (The day Before)

 

याद रखे

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  • Assertive Sentences  दोनों sentence को जोड़ने के लिए That का उपयोग करते है ( inverted comma हटाकर )
  • नकारात्मक के लिए सहायक क्रिया के बाद Not लगा देते है
  • Reporting speech  में यदि verb के बाद object है तो       

Say to   = tell

Says to = tells

Said to = told     में बदल देते है

अभ्यास

Raju says,  “ I am kissing ”

ऊपर दिए गए उदाहरण को हम निम्न स्टेप्स में हल करेंगे-

Steps –

1)वाक्य के प्रकार को पहचाने

2)Reporting speech के tense को पहचाने

3)Change in person > Change in tense > Other changes

स्टेप 3 के अनुसार सबसे पहले हम पर्सन उसके बाद टेन्स एवम उसके बाद अन्य परिवर्तन करेंग.

Raju says that he is kissing

अभ्यास

He said ” I am ready ”

He said that he was ready

He said ” I am not ready ”

He said that he was not ready

अभ्यास

She said to me “you do not love”

She told me that I did not love.

                  * indirect में हम करक ( case ) नहीं बदलते है  

Munni said  “you marriage my sister”

Munni said that I marriage her sister.

अभ्यास

  • You said “She wrote a love letter”

You said that She had written a love letter

  • She says, “  I am dancing  ”

She says that she is dancing

अभ्यास

  • I shall say, “ She is an honest girl

I shall says that She is an honest girl

  • She said to me, “You may need help”

She told me that I might need help.

  • She said to me, “Sun rises in the east“

She said to me that Sun rises in the east.

 

B. Interrogative Sentences ( प्रश्न वाचक वाक्य )

  • जब Interrogative, helping verb ( is, am, are )  की सहायता से बनाया जाये तो हम जोड़ने के लिए if या  Whether का प्रयोग करते है, एवं इसके बाद सब्जेक्ट से आगे का भाग प्रारम्भ करते है, जैसे

I say to him, “Are you playing carom”

I ask him whether he is playing carom.

  • Reporting verb में निम्न प्रकार परिवर्तन करेंगे

Say = ask

Says = asks

Said = asked  का प्रयोग करते है, जैसे

I say to him, “Are you playing carrom”

I ask him whether he is playing carrom.

  • जब interrogative, Wh-words (what, where) की सहायता से बनाये जाते है तब हम sentence को जोड़ने के लिए  Wh-words का प्रयोग करते है एवं इसके बाद सब्जेक्ट से स्टार्ट करते है, जैसे

I asked her, “ what are you doing ? ”

I asked her what she was doing.

 

C. Imperative Sentences ( आज्ञा सूचक )

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में आदेश / order दिया जाता है.  दोनों sentence को जोड़ने के लिए To  का प्रयोग एवं इसके बाद Verb का 1st  form.

भाव के अनुसार Reporting Verb  में Request, Order, Advice  आदि का प्रयोग.

  • He said to me, “Take exercise everyday”

He advised me to take exercise everyday

  • The teacher said to the boys, “Come on time”

The teacher ordered the student to come on time

 

D. Exclamatory sentence ( विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्य )

इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में आश्चर्य का भाव होता है. Exclamatory  शब्द हटाकर  sentence  को  That  से जोड़ते है. भाव के अनुसार Reporting verb में exclaimed with sorrow, shouted with joy, exclaim with surprise आदि का प्रयोग, अन्य सब पहले जैसा.

  • Champa said, “ Alas! My friend has died”

Champa exclaimed with sorrow that his friend has dead

  •   They said, “Hurrah ! we have won”

They shouted with joy that they had won the match

 

E. Optative Sentences ( इच्छासूचक वाक्य )

शुभ अशुभ कामनाएँ व्यक्त की जाती है

यह Assertive और Imperative  के अनुसार बदलते है. Reporting verb में bless, wish, curse  आदि का प्रयोग.

  • He said to his friend, “May you recover soon”

He wished his friend that he might recover soon.

  • He said to the child,  “May you live long”

He Blessed the child to live long.

 

विस्तार से समझने के लिए हमारे वीडियो को देखे

 

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Best of Luck

5 thoughts on “Direct and indirect speech of English grammar”

  1. Hi sir main 10+2 student hu
    Maine english ki coching bhi ki jo kafi had meri english tik hai but jab mere sir narration teach kar rahe the tab main absent tha isliye main phadh nni paya so apke is narration chapter se kafi help hua hai so #thanks

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