Finite and Non-Finite Verb of English grammar for UPSC

Finite and Non-Finite Verb

In this lesson, we learn followings –

  • Finite verb
  • Non-Finite verb
  • Infinitive
  • Gerund
  • Participle


 Finite verb

Those verbs which depend on to Subject and Tense.

ऐसे क्रिया जो, कर्ता, लिंग, वचन, काल आदि पर निर्भर करती है; अर्थात इसके अनुसार अपना रूप बदल लेती है. जैसे आपने देखा होगा की क्रियाएँ काल के अनुसार I,II,III के रूप में प्रयोग होती है.


  • They want to play
  • He wants to play …………subject or Number
  • He is a Doctor
  • He was a Doctor …………tense

Non-Finite verbs

Those verbs which not depend on to Subject and Tense.

ऐसे क्रिया जो, कर्ता, लिंग, वचन, काल आदि पर निर्भर नहीं करती है अर्थात इसके अनुसार अपना रूप नहीं बदलती है.

इस प्रकार की क्रिया, क्रिया की तरह अपना व्यवहार नहीं करती, बल्कि संज्ञा, विशेषण आदि के रूप में कार्य करती है.


  • I want to swim
  • He wants to swim
  • They want to swim

Type of Non-Finite verbs

  1. Infinitive
  2. Gerund
  3. Participle

1- Infinitive

  • Used as Noun
  • Normally used with ‘To’
  • Independent from subject and number
  • वह क्रिया जो संज्ञा का कार्य करती हो


  • He wished to die
  • To Abuse poor man is bad
  • They made me weep

2- Gerund

  • Used as Noun
  • Used with ‘ing’ Form
  • Independent from subject and number
  • सामान्यतः इस तरह के वाक्य Verb+ing से शुरू होते है, या बीच में Verb+ing फॉर्म होता है।


  • Reading is a useful habit
  • I like reading Poetry
  • Hunting is an adventurous sport

3- Participle

When verb used as Adjective

Participles are three following types

a) Present Participle
b) Past Participle
c) Perfect participle

a) Present Participle

When ‘Verb-I + ing’ work as adjective


  • I found the children sleeping.
  • The ship sinks in rising waves.

b) Past Participle

When ‘Verb -III’  work as adjective.


  • No educated person was here.
  • It is a part of broken jar.

c) Perfect participle

  • Having + Verb-III
  • When Verb work as adjective as well as indicate work is completed


Having done my duty, I went home.

Having finished my lesson, i left home.


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